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TMT-L Trail-Making Test – Langensteinbach Version

K. Rodewald, M. Weisbrod & S. Aschenbrenner
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Application

Assesses general neuropsychological functions such as visuomotor processing speed and cognitive flexibility.
The Trail-Making Test is widely used internationally to investigate brain functioning. It consists of two parts. TMT-A is primarily a measure of processing speed, while TMT-B assesses higher cognitive abilities such as mental flexibility. In the TMT-L version a weakness in the original version has been corrected by equalizing the length of the pathways in the two parts of the test. In addition, the points to be highlighted lie within a particular radius and within an angle of vision that permits foveal recognition. This means that performance in part B is not affected by greater visual search efforts and that working times can be more validly compared with each other. The test’s usefulness as a clinical test of visuomotor processing speed and cognitive flexibility has been demonstrated for both neurological and psychiatric disorders. The test has been found to be sensitive to neurocognitive deficits, such as those that occur as a result of brain injuries and neurological disorders. It is therefore used for screening, for assessing neuropsychological deficits and for preparing therapeutic interventions.

Administration

The test consists of two parts. In part A the numbers 1 to 25 appear on the screen in an apparently random arrangement. The respondent must tap or click on them in sequential order as quickly as possible, either tapping with the forefinger of the dominant hand or clicking with the mouse. Part B uses the numbers 1 to 13 and the letters A to L. These must be tapped or clicked alternately and in ascending order as quickly as possible,

Test forms

S1: Parallel form M1 – Worked with mouse
S2: Parallel form M2 – Worked with mouse
S3: Parallel form M3 – Worked with mouse
S11: Parallel form T1 – Worked with touch-screen
S12: Parallel form T2 – Worked with touch-screen
S13: Parallel form T3 – Worked with touch-screen
 

Scoring

The following main variables are scored:

  • Working time – Part A: Measure of cognitive processing speed.
  • Working time – Part B: Measure of cognitive flexibility.

The additional variables Difference B-A and Quotient B/A enable the individual’s cognitive performances to be compared with each other in a more nuanced assessment.

Scoring elements

Table
Profile
Working time
Confidence interval
Profile analysis
Test protocol
Item analysis protocol
Progress chart
Special diagrammatic representation of results
Personalized Word report

Test type

Special Ability Tests

Test information

adaptive
modular
language-free item material
parallel test form
conforms to the Rasch-model
additional device required
high level of test security
wide norm spectrum
test form available for online presentation - open mode
links to CogniPlus
supervisor-supported testing

Languages

Czech
Dutch
English
French
German
Hungarian
Italian
Portuguese
Russian
Slovene
Spanish
Turkish

Duration

approx. 4 minutes if both subtests are presented

Age

Norms for ages 14+.

Special features

Optimization of the layout by comparison with the original version.
Development of parallel versions
Standardization of time measurement

Videos