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VLT Verbal Learning Test

W. Sturm & K. Willmes


Assesses language-based learning by means of high-associative and low-associative neologisms.
The memorized material is recalled using the recognition method. The results of the VLT provide information about patients’ dual encoding ability. This test can be administered to healthy people as well as to people with brain damage, in whom it may be used to assess specific memory deficits. Together with impairments of attention, memory disorders are among the most frequent neuropsychological consequences of brain injury. Thorough neuropsychological assessment and differentiation of these memory impairments is essential for prognosis of the course of the disease, assessment of the patient’s work-related and social competence and the planning of appropriate rehabilitation.


The respondent is presented with a series of neologisms.
For each one, the respondent decides whether he has already seen this combination of letters and presses the appropriate button.

Test forms

S1: Long form A – standard form
S2: Short form A
S3: Long form B – parallel test form
S4: Short form B – parallel test form
S5: Visual discrimination test – for use with respondents of below-average ability


The following main variables are scored:

  • Sum of the differences between correct and incorrect YES answers: Measure of learning ability.
  • Sum of correct YES answers: Measure of the ability to recognize repeatedly presented items as such.
  • Sum of incorrect YES answers: Measure of the ability to identify items that have not previously been presented as new items.

The subsidiary variables in the long version enable learning ability to be scored separately for medium-associative and low-associative neologisms.

Scoring elements

Working time
Confidence interval
Profile analysis
Test protocol
Item analysis protocol
Progress chart
Special diagrammatic representation of results
Personalized Word report
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Test type

Special Ability Tests

Test information

language-free item material
parallel test form
conforms to the Rasch-model
additional device required
high level of test security
wide norm spectrum
test form available for online presentation - open mode
links to CogniPlus
supervisor-supported testing




approx. 9-12 minutes, depending on test form The visual discrimination test takes approximately three minutes.


Norms for ages 5+.

Special features

Separate scoring of learning performance for high-associative and low-associative items.